Tooth bone grafting
A bone graft is the addition of bone, or bone-like material, to fix problems associated with bone by increasing the volume of bone in the jaw. Bone grafting is required when jaw bone is less and dental implant is not possible.
Bone grafting is a surgical procedure that plays a very important role in making new teeth possible. The art and science of dentistry has brought forward highly specialized and successful techniques in order to restore the teeth which are lost.
Reasons for bone grafting
- Bone grafting is needed before a dental implant surgery, if the jawbone isn’t thick enough or is too soft. That’s because the chewing action of the mouth exerts great pressure on the bone. A more solid base for the implant is provided by grafting.
- Some people do not have enough healthy natural bone to support a dental implant. The reasons for natural bone insufficiency can be due to:
- Voids in the jaw after the teeth is removed
- Gum disease
- Tooth development defects
- A trauma or an injury to the face
- Wearing dentures for long
There are many types of bone grafts whose usage depends on the situation and the amount of bone required:
- Autograft – bone from the patient’s own body like hip, chin etc.
- Allograft – bone from a hereditarily analogous organism.
- Xenograft – bone from a genetically different organism.
- Synthetic – a synthetic biocompatible material.
Bone Grafting Procedure
The procedures for bone grafting vary according to the situation and the condition of the jaws.
The Alveolar Ridge Preservation Graft or “Socket Graft” When the tooth is lost the space is immediately replaced with a “ridge preservation graft” (socket graft), also known as the little bone graft. It is then secured using a collagen and one or two dissolvable stitches. The ridge graft requires between three to six months before an implant can be placed, depending on the size of the tooth that was extracted.
The Autogenous Ramus/Chin Graft or “Block Bone Graft” Also known as medium bone graft, this procedure involves removing a small block of bone from either the lower jaw or the chin and transferring that bone to the area of bone deficiency. Then, the graft is secured with tiny screws and superimposed with particulate bovine bone and a collagen membrane. Healing time of four months is usually given for the graft to fuse to the underlying jawbone before placing an implant.
The Subantral Graft or “Sinus Lift Procedure” The placement of an implant in the back of the upper jaw is a slightly bigger task when in comparison to other areas of the jaw. The subantral graft or “sinus lift procedure” is used as a replacement for maxillary molars. The subantral grafting procedure is performed by making a small window in the sinus above the roots of the maxillary (upper jaw) teeth. This small cavity or balloon like space is then filled with cow bone. A time period of six to nine months is required for this bone to consolidate after having formed a scaffold for natural bone replacement.
Side effects of bone grafting
- There are a few side effects after bone grafting:
- Earache and a sore throat
- Nausea and vomiting
These side effects are not so common, just a little care and precautions are necessary.